John Brascia, Dancing Dynamo, Dramatically Delivering Big Smiles and Distinctly Different Steps

white-christmas-ellen-abraham

John Brascia

 

John Brascia burst upon the cinematic scene, with good looks, a tremendous smile and most of all his natural born athleticism which imbued his dance steps with vigor and excitement. His talent for dancing was immediately recognized as special and great things were heralded for his career; his name mentioned in the same rarified air of, Astaire and Kelly.[1] His turns in White Christmas, 1954 and Meet Me in Las Vegas in 1956 brought to Brascia, adulations and plaudits in perpetuity, without reserve; that is the magnificence of his performances in these two film-musicals…

Brascia’s Back-story: The Family

John Frank Brascia was born on May 11, 1932, in California, to Italian immigrants Gaetano (Galtano, Tommy) Brascia and Caterina “Katie” Napolitano. The Brascia clan including grandparents Mike and Consetta Brascia moved from Brooklyn, New York, before John Frank was born.

In California:

Tommy Brascia co-owned (with his father Mike[2]) and operated a liquor store, which was located at 126 West I Street (at the time a popular small business area) in Colton, California. It seems that Tommy was making some of his profits by bookmaking and pool-selling. He was arrested and charged with those and other sundry violations of the California state penal codes in the summer of 1949,[3] he was sentenced to ninety-days and a $250.00 fine; suspension of his sentence was dependent upon no further violations.[4] In addition, to the spirits store Tommy Brascia had an amusement games business in Van Nuys, California.[5] While an apartment above the liquor store on West I Street, began as the Brascia’s home,[6]  by the late 1940s their residence was at 715 West E Street in Colton.[7]

John’s Sibs

John (Johnny, Johnnie, Johnie) Brascia had an older brother, the middle child, Vincent; he played second-singles on the Colton High-School tennis squad.[8] The oldest of the Brascia children was their sister, Cecilia (named after her aunt) who graduated from Colton High School in 1945.[9] The Brascia family attended the Immaculate Conception Catholic Church of Colton where in the late spring of 1944 John received his first Holy Communion.[10]

Johnny Himself:

Johnny Brascia (Deadeye Johnny) was a high-school basketball player beginning in his sophomore year at Colton High, acting as a co-captain; Colton is a suburb of San Bernardino, California.[11] At 5’11” he took the position of guard in his junior year; he was a starter for the Colton Yellowjackets.[12] It is certain that Brascia became a two-sport athlete, possibly three, if we accept a one line report about him suiting up for baseball at Colton High, yet there is no further evidence of this.[13] He played for Colton on the football squad as the starting quarterback in his junior and senior years.[14] In 1950 (just three years and six months before he would go before the cameras on White Christmas and the very same year when he appeared as a dancer in, Summer Stock (although uncredited), Brascia was voted to Second-Team of the All-Citrus Belt Basketball League.[15] In his years in basketball, Brascia was coached by Tom Morrow a Southern California coaching legend, who piloted the school’s program for twenty-four years, 1947-1971.[16] Some writers have made mention that Brascia attended Hollywood High as though his entire scholastic-sports career was played out there. It is true that he went to the Tinseltown high school, just not a significant amount of time, spending April and May of his senior year there.[17]

Colton, California, Colton Union High School Yearbook 1949

Colton, California, Colton Union High School Yearbook 1949

Colton, California, Colton Union High School Yearbook 1949

Colton, California, Colton Union High School Yearbook 1949

Colton, California, Colton Union High School Yearbook 1949

Colton, California, Colton Union High School Yearbook 1949

 

At what point Brascia became interested with dancing is not easily discernible and one friend said that Johnny “never showed any indication… of going into the performing arts.”[18] It does not appear that he was involved in any high-school stage productions. But, he obviously loved the movies and maybe infatuation with them and their stars is a better term, because he was ejected from Paramount Studios in 1950, when caught climbing a wall to watch the actors and actresses go by.[19] Some of those who have written bio-briefs have speculated as to what Brascia was up to after he graduated high school and before he hit the Great White Way in early 1953. We know that he had two uncredited appearances before the camera in Summer Stock in 1950 and Call Me Madam (filming in 1952), which was finished before his Broadway stint.

summer-stock-poster-2

call-me-madam-movie-poster

 

The answer to the question of that twenty-four month work-gap may be that he was a telephone lineman. Others have suggested military service,[20] to fill in the dark-area of his early career, which does not seem plausible considering Brascia was living in North Hollywood, in the late summer of 1951.[21] Yet, on the other hand this work as a lineman with a telephone company appears all the more probable, since by the very fact that he was still residing in Southern California in 1951. This in-between job as a lineman was posited by columnist Marilyn Beck in a 1968 article, with what appears to be information from a short interview.[22] In these early years Brascia commenced dance lessons with Louis “Luigi” Faccuito, jazz-dance impresario;[23] exactly when I have not been able to ascertain.

Brascia on Broadway:

At some point prior to Broadway, Brascia appeared in a production of Madame Butterfly; at what theater and with who was not reported. However, in 1952 the Metropolitan Opera staged Butterfly in February and the New York City Opera produced this well known piece by Puccini, staging it at the City Center in late March.[24] Whichever company he appeared with I am sure by Mr. Brascia’s work ethic, that he presented the audience with a treat; Madame Butterfly was his first official appearance in New York.[25] Brascia’s only production on Broadway was in Hazel Flagg, which premiered at the Mark Hellinger Theatre on February 11, 1953 and ended its run on September 19, 1953. He and Sheree North (her Broadway debut as well) were added to the cast in the middle of December, 1942.[26]

Brascia as Willie in Hazel Flagg along with Helen Gallagher in the title role. From the Collections of the Museum of the City of New York.

Brascia as Willie in Hazel Flagg along with Helen Gallagher in the title role. From the Collections of the Museum of the City of New York.

Brascia as Willie in Hazel Flagg along with Helen Gallagher in the title role. From the Collections of the Museum of the City of New York.

Brascia as Willie in Hazel Flagg along with Helen Gallagher in the title role. From the Collections of the Museum of the City of New York.

Brascia as Willie in Hazel Flagg along with Helen Gallagher in the title role. From the Collections of the Museum of the City of New York.

Brascia as Willie in Hazel Flagg along with Helen Gallagher in the title role. From the Collections of the Museum of the City of New York.

 

During the first few months of his new found fame, Brascia was romantically connected to cast member Estelle Aza,[27] who had already been in two other Broadway productions; each part was non-speaking, appearing as a dancer.  The Outer Circle Award for Best Supporting Performance went to John Brascia for his portrayal of Willie in Hazel Flagg.[28] He also won the Best Dancer from the Donaldson Awards poll of Billboard, for his work in Flagg.[29] He was a favorite of Rosalind Russell who threw a small party for the dancer at Bruno’s Pen & Pencil; as a gift she presented Brascia with a stack of letters-of-introduction to her friends in Hollywood.[30]

Billboard June 20, 1953

Billboard June 20, 1953

 

After the Saturday night, 4th of July performance, Flagg, went on break and during this summer hiatus Brascia went to Hollywood and spent time with actress-dancer Ann Miller. Flagg returned from recess on September 1, 1953, and Brascia made his way back for the reopening; the play lasted only another nineteen days after the summer vacation.[31] Robert Alton staged the dances and musical numbers for, Call Me Madam, which work he finished prior to heading for Broadway and the Hazel Flagg production.[32] Brascia, aforesaid, appeared uncredited in Madam, clearly, his relationship with Alton led to Hazel Flagg which led to White Christmas. Most modern retellings of Alton and Brascia’s association are accounted beginning with Flagg. But, this Call Me Madam dancing by Brascia in the ‘Ocarina’ scene introduced him to choreographer Robert Alton, and when Alton took the duties as stager of the dances and musical numbers on White Christmas, he cast Brascia in the role of John.[33] In early September it was reported that Brascia would leave Flagg to dance with Vera Ellen in White Christmas,[34] and the rest as they say is history; no sooner did Brascia get hired for White Christmas, in 1953, than he began courting Vera Ellen, he, her junior by eleven years.[35] Much of Robert Alton’s White Christmas choreography intended for Danny Kaye and Vera Ellen proved too complicated for Kaye, Brascia stepped in[36] and with his performance hoofed his way into Hollywood history; thrilling audiences for the last six decades. Luigi Faccuito (Brascia’s dance instructor), although unlisted and uncredited appeared in White Christmas as well.[37] There are a few Call Me Madam alums in WC, Gorge Chakiris, Barrie Chase and Vera Ellen; Donald O’Connor who was to play the Phil Davis role (eventually filled by Danny Kaye), in White Christmas co-starred in Madam. Brascia and Ellen are truly exceptional in the AbrahamChoreography and Mandy sequences.

White_Chrismas_poster

Abraham Scene with Brascia & Vera Ellen

Abraham Scene with Brascia & Vera Ellen

More from the Abraham Scene Brascia & Vera Ellen

More from the Abraham Scene Brascia & Vera Ellen

 

Brascia Ballroom:

Brascia during the 1950’s and 60’s lived not by checks from his film work or in ballet or musicals, but with dancing in clubs and on television. 1954 must have been an uncomfortable year of for Brascia, after the flurry of the bustle of 1953. Yet, 1954 was cushioned by the impending release of White Christmas in the autumn and his behind the scenes duties on, There’s No Business Like Show Business. Johnny took dance-in Joan Weamer (standing in for Marilyn Monroe) through the steps in the “Heat Wave” number. Brascia’s job along with Ms. Weamer and four male dancers, including White Christmas alumni George Chakiris was to demonstrate the scene for Monroe;[38] still this resulted in no screen time for John but it did as an uncredited appearance for Chakiris. For, There’s No Business, Robert Alton again was the dance maestro and he seeming to fill the role of mentor or benefactor for Brascia and Chakiris.

There's_No_Business_Like_Show_Business_movie_poster

 

Then in May of 1955 Vera Ellen began a production at the newly constructed hotel-casino, The Dunes, in Las Vegas; this extravaganza (Magic Carpet Revue) played in the Arabian Room. The cast of the show was sixty strong and featured Brascia.[39] When Johnny was filming his sequences with Cyd Charisse for Meet Me in Las Vegas (opened in February, 1956), Ellen waited patiently for her twenty-four-year-old dancing partner to return.[40] The work with friend Vera Ellen in Vegas and the Vegas musical starring Charisse and Dan Daily, provided a  significant bridge of publicity for Brascia, much needed for the coming year of 1956.

Shows At The Dunes

MEET_ME_IN_LAS_VEGAS poster

Johnny Brascia in the Frankie and Johnny ballet scene with the marvelous Cyd Charisse and the beautiful Liliane Montevecchi

Johnny Brascia in the Frankie and Johnny ballet scene with the marvelous Cyd Charisse and the beautiful Liliane Montevecchi

 

Women of all ages seemed to be attracted to Johnny and for a brief period Dallas heiress, Peggy Kane was romantically involved with Brascia; this bit appeared in Walter Winchell’s, Man About Town and On Broadway columns in February of 1955.[41] 1956 was a repeat of 1954 for Brascia, the year went as dark (except the release of Meet Me in Las Vegas) as a Monday at a Broadway Theatre. From here on out though, Brascia would without a doubt face no employment drought. The other noteworthy event for Brascia in 1956 began in the spring, which was his involvement with actress Movita, almost fifteen years older than he, which stirred a few notices in newspapers across the land because of her romantic ties to Marlon Brando (future husband of Movita). Brascia and Movita nearly married that year, they had set the wedding-date for March 27, but their on-again-off-again romance soon went off and the nuptials were delayed. Also in 1957, John paired with Ballerina Mia Slavenska in rehearsals for a rock-n-roll act for TV and clubs; the twosome made appearances at two hotels. It appears this venture did not pan out, for nothing further was written regarding the act.[43]

Most of Johnny’s success was with (Brascia & Tybee), Ms. Afra, playing the best clubs and the best television shows (a cursory glance of TV listings of the late 1950s through the 1960s reveals they appeared often on the boob-tube).[44] To list each performer Brascia and Tybee danced for and categorize all of their performances would take an article itself; but what follows are a few of those people and some adverts to demonstrate their popularity. Brascia & Tybee especially in the late 1950s through the mid-60s were often seen with: Jack Benny,[45] Tony Martin, Maurice Chevalier, Dean Martin, Tony Bennett, Woody Allen, Petula Clark,[46] George Burns, Danny Thomas, Frank Sinatra and the Rat Pack regulars. These aforementioned entertainers are just some of the stars that Brascia and Tybee worked with in Las Vegas, Miami, Reno and Tahoe; all of the major metropolitan cities saw the choreographed moves of this dynamic couple. Brascia & Tybee were one of the highest paid dance teams in entertainment; quickly moving up the show business ladder of success, nearing number-one.[47]

Pasadena Independent, Pasadena, California, March 27, 1959

Pasadena Independent, Pasadena, California, March 27, 1959

Miami Herald, Miami, Florida, March 11, 1959

Miami Herald, Miami, Florida, March 11, 1959

Pasadena Independent, Pasadena, California, June 26, 1968

Pasadena Independent, Pasadena, California, June 26, 1968

Nevada State Journal, Reno, Nevada, June 18, 1966

Nevada State Journal, Reno, Nevada, June 18, 1966

Miami Herald, Miami, Florida, March 12, 1959

Miami Herald, Miami, Florida, March 12, 1959

Appeal Democrat, Marysville, California, May 4, 1959

Appeal Democrat, Marysville, California, May 4, 1959

Nevada State Journal, Reno, Nevada, August 1, 1969

Nevada State Journal, Reno, Nevada, August 1, 1969

Pasadena Independent, Pasadena, California, October 11, 1966

Pasadena Independent, Pasadena, California, October 11, 1966

 

According to author Josephine Powell, Afra and Brascia met at Lindy’s Deli in New York after Tybee finished shooting her scenes for Silk Stockings (appearing as Fifi, uncredited) in the spring of 1957. Brascia’s account stated that Afra suggested them teaming up. The couple’s first routine featured Roger ‘King’ Mosian on drums and Dominic Frontiere on piano with Brascia’s former dance teacher, Eugene Louis “Luigi” Faccuito staging the act; since Brascia felt Afra needed ballet lessons to further prepare the duet he set a schedule of instruction up for her. An MCA agent saw a rehearsal at Grossinger’s and Brascia and Tybee were signed to appear at the Latin Casino in Philadelphia. The weekend shows at Grossinger’s were a success and fortuitously enough a representative of the Fontainebleau Hotel, in Miami Beach attended; the duo was offered $1,000 per week to open for Lena Horne, and $1,200 a week when later opening for Tony Martin. It was at the Fontainebleau that a talent scout for the Ed Sullivan Show saw the dancing couple and scheduled them for the May 26, 1957 broadcast, which program Frank Sinatra saw and promptly contacted Brascia and Tybee’s agent and they got a booking at the Sands in Las Vegas opening for the Rat Pack, featuring Sinatra, Sammy Davis Jr., Peter Lawford and Joey Bishop. The dancing-duo was being paid $1,750 each week[48]  for their turns on the floor to captivate and energize the audience, preparing them for the Rat Pack experience.

Although Tybee Afra and Brascia were now partnered, Johnny received an opportunity to appear in one piece in the 1958 Broadway production of, Oh Captain (opened February 4). His number was cut after the Philadelphia premier in January of 1958;[49] he had the role of, The Couturier. This loss in turn led to a tryout with Jerome Robbins, founder of the Ballets, U. S. A… Brascia was promptly hired. The U.S. State Department sponsored the twenty-week tour of Europe, that included stops at the Brussels Fair and the Festival of Two Worlds, in Spoleto, Italy; American artists that participated were Thomas Schippers who directed the musical branch, Jose Quintero, the drama and Jerome Robbins, choreographed a program of ballets.[50] The tour began in the late spring of 1958 and performed throughout the summer and the company of dancers that Robbins’ assembled was sixteen, inclusive of our Mr. Brascia.[51] The ballet portion of the tour staged, Games, by Todd Bolender, and three by Robbins: N. Y. Export: op. Jazz; Afternoon of a Faun, and, The Concert, filled the dancing program.[52] As late as December of 1958, the Movita (Maria Castaneda) and Brascia relationship was on-again,[53] finally the wedding was cancelled altogether and by March of 59 Brascia’s interests had moved from Ms. Castaneda to his new dance partner Tybee Afra.[54] 1959 saw Brascia & Tybee appearing in California and in Florida with well known headliners during the spring; the couple’s partnership turned to friendship and then marriage; they were wed in early September, 1959, in a ceremony in the Catskills.[55]

Brascia and Tybee made an appearance on, Talent Scouts, in 1960, hosted by Dave Garroway and the dancing duo was introduced by Maureen O’Hara.[56] Johnny Brascia had the lead role in the Robert Herridge Theater production of, Frankie and Johnny (the perfect choice since he had danced the Johnny role in the Meet Me in Las Vegas, ballet sequence), a thirty-minute jazz-ballet broadcast in October of 1960, with music by Charlie Mingus and choreography by Lee Sherman. Tybee Brascia had the part of Nelly Bly and Melissa Hayden played opposite Johnny.[57]  The famous Copa Room at the Sands Hotel, in Las Vegas showcased Brascia & Tybee in 1960-1961.[58] The 1960-61 Ed Sullivan Show, on CBS, featured Brascia & Tybee, twice over; in December, 1960 and in April of 1961.[59] At the 26th annual Poinsettia Ball, held at the Hotel Americana, on December 1, 1962, Brascia & Tybee entertained guests with their dancing prowess; the emcee for the event was George DeWitt.[60]

On June 25, 1964,[61] Xavier Cugat brought a million-dollar law-suit against Brascia and Tybee. The grievance claimed that the husband and wife team persuaded Cugat’s ex-wife Abbe Lane to break her contract with him. Brascia and Tybee, who denied wooing Lane,[62] were a part of the Cugat-Lane show. Cugat filed for $200,000 plus $800,000 in punitive damages just three weeks after Lane divorced Cugat in Mexico.[63] In most modern mentions, Brascia is listed as being accused of either stealing Cugat’s wife or that he was sued for alienation of affection, when in fact the charges, according to the New York Times read that John and Tybee Brascia “did carry on a constant campaign in various countries of the world undermining the relationship between the plaintiff and Abbe Lane and did so all of this while professing great friendship for plaintiff.”[64] In July of 1964 John and Tybee Brascia countered Cugat with a law-suit of their own, claiming that the band leader had influenced booking agents from hiring them; they filed in the New York State Supreme Court for $6,100,000 on Monday, July 27.[65] Unfortunately, I have found (my searches have been from the comfort of my office; Nero Wolfe style) no further information on the resolution to these cases.

In the spring of 1966 Brascia & Tybee were featured in the Dean Martin Show at Harrah’s, in Lake Tahoe, as well the pair performed on Dean Martin’s television program on October 6, 1966.[66] 1966 also found Brascia and Afra in Rome, for a TV special for Studio Uno, staring Marcello Mastroianni and produced by Hermes Pan; the couple was joined by Jerry Jackson and White Christmas cast-mate Barrie Chase.[67] It was during the early 1960’s through 1966 that John Brascia and Tybee Afra-Brascia made nine films in Italy; I am unable to find any references to titles or possible stars.[68] The dynamic-duo had the privilege of dancing at the 8ooth birthday celebration of Copenhagen in August of 1967;[69] I doubt they ever danced for any birthday-wish recipient any older than this one.

Brascia Before the Cameras Again:

Dean Martin made, The Ambushers (a “Matt Helm” film) in 1967 and brought along friend John Brascia for the project, for his first non-dance related film or television appearance. This was in a way was a second career, for this nouveau-dramatique actor, not quite leaving dance behind but taking new bold steps; he received positive reviews for his performance. 1967 offered Brascia & Tybee the opportunity to be the first U. S. dancers to appear in East Berlin, East Germany;[70] the couple must have been truly excited to be taking their steps beyond the wall and letting their talents speak freedom from the dance floor.

the-ambushers

 

Johnny did work on Bullitt in 1968 as a gangster, but evidently his scenes ended up on the cutting room floor;[71] this tidbit was reported in the Voice of Broadway syndicated column written by Jack O’Brian and by Hollywood reporter Earl Wilson. It is a shame that this part of Brascia’s résumé is lost, because according to O’Brian, Brascia was great![72] What many refer to as the premiere showing of Bullitt on October 17, 1968 was actually a VIP preview.[73] The official premiere was in San Francisco on November 15, with the majority of the country seeing the film near Christmas. The footage involving Brascia must have been edited before the general release in November. 1968 was not bereft of Brascia for he had a role in another Dean Martin “Matt Helm” movie, The Wrecking Crew, with a Christmas opening.

wrecking_crew_xlg

 

With Ed Sullivan again, Brascia and Tybee headlined for the “Really Big Show” during the May Sweeps, in 1969;[74] they were regulars with TV icon Sullivan. Yet, with all of their professional success, things were not perfect for the couple and John and Tybee Brascia filed for divorce in May of 1970. Brascia and Susan Harper Pierson (actress Sondra “Sandra” Scott) planned on marrying in November when the dissolution was final.[75] At last, on December 19 of 1970 the couple was married in Los Angeles proper with Tony Bennett in attendance as Best Man.[76] Bennett and Brascia were friends and in fact, the latter introduced Bennett to Fred Astaire.[77] The newly formed Brascia & Brascia got to work straight away and their daughter Christina C. was born in the middle of September, 1971. Although domestic bliss was over, still the dance team of Brascia and Tybee continued,[78] making appearances through the summer of 1972; then Johnny Brascia hung up his dancing shoes;[79] or did he? John Brascia was on the short-list, well actually a long-list, for the role of Sonny Corleone, in the Godfather. This information comes to us by Francis Ford Coppola’s own hand, written on a sheet of paper from a yellow pad. This can be seen at the Francis Ford Coppola Winery in Geyserville, California, which is located off of highway 101, north of San Francisco.

Francis Ford Coppola Winery Movie Gallery

Francis Ford Coppola Winery Movie Gallery

The Godfather casting list located at the Francis Ford Coppola Winery

The Godfather casting list located at the Francis Ford Coppola Winery

 

Tybee Afra-Brascia married stuntman-actor Daniel C. Vafiadis (AKA Dan Vadis, Dan Vardis), in June of 1973 in Los Angeles. Vadis was best known for his cinematic work in Italy. 1973 saw Johnny in two films, Walking Tall and Executive Action; these two films represented his first non-musical film-roles that were not attached to friend Dean Martin. Executive Action, afforded Brascia the opportunity to work with two of Hollywood’s most memorable tough-persona actors, Burt Lancaster and Robert Ryan. While his appearance with Joe Don Baker in Walking Tall, will forever have Johnny Brascia in a rough-and-tumble cult-classic; quite the departure for a Broadway, Hollywood-musical and nightclub dancer.

Walking Tall

executive-action-movie-poster

 

A made for television movie followed in 1974, Pray for the Wildcats; Brascia had a two episode stint on ABC’s, S.W.A.T., in 1975. He had a single appearance in Joe and Sons, a short lived series on CBS, 1976. John and Sondra were unable to make a go of it and their marriage lasted but a few years; Sondra married again in November of 1976 to California real estate investor and apartment landlord, Kurt Bromet.[80]

In 1977 Brascia did make a special appearance on the Donny and Marie Show, dancing once again with Cyd Charisse; Charisse proffered the idea of partnering with Johnny in dance when she and husband Tony Martin made future musical appearances.[81] But, Johnny Brascia actively pursued acting writing and producing, The Baltimore Bullet, in 1980. This was the last work for Mr. Brascia.

Thebaltimorebullet

 

In 1986 Brascia married actress-model Jordan Michaels (Michaels had a bit role in The Baltimore Bullet), who was nearly sixteen-years younger and they had a daughter, Giavonna in the late spring of 1987.[82] The latter years could not have been easy for John Brascia for he began a twenty year battle with Parkinson’s disease in the early 1990s;[83] Brascia died on February 19, 2013, in a nursing home in Santa Monica, California.

John Frank Brascia, was a wonderfully energetic dancer and a rare talent; although never becoming a screen or television star, he captivated audiences for more than thirty years with his style and smile. I am sure his filmed performances, few though they be, will continue to capture the hearts and minds of dance-lovers for decades to come.

 

 

By C. S. Williams

 

[1] The Two of Us, Tony Martin & Cyd Charisse, as told to Dick Kleiner, published by Mason/Charter, 1976, page 210

[2] San Bernardino County Sun (San Bernardino, California) September 18, 1944

[3] San Bernardino County Sun (San Bernardino, California) June 25, 1949

[4] San Bernardino County Sun (San Bernardino, California) July 6, 1949

[5] Van Nuys News (Van Nuys, California) April 13, 1950

[6] San Bernardino County Sun (San Bernardino, California) October 6, 1943

[7] San Bernardino County Sun (San Bernardino, California) July 13, 1949

[8] San Bernardino County Sun (San Bernardino, California) April 26, 1946

[9] San Bernardino County Sun (San Bernardino, California) June 17, 1945

[10] San Bernardino County Sun (San Bernardino, California) June 10, 1944

[11] San Bernardino County Sun (San Bernardino, California) February 18; March 5, 1948

[12] San Bernardino County Sun (San Bernardino, California) January 7; February 11, 1949

[13] Inland Empire Community Newspapers (Colton, California)  May 3, 2014

[14] San Bernardino County Sun (San Bernardino, California) October 21, 1948

San Bernardino County Sun (San Bernardino, California) October 20, 1949

[15] San Bernardino County Sun (San Bernardino, California) March 3, 1950

[16] San Bernardino County Sun (San Bernardino, California) November 5, 1954

Inland Empire Community Newspapers (Colton, California) April 24, 2014

[17] San Bernardino County Sun (San Bernardino, California) March 30, 1950

[18] Inland Empire Community Newspapers (Colton, California) May 3, 2014

[19] Lubbock Evening Journal (Lubbock, Texas) October 21, 1954

[20] Inland Empire Community Newspapers (Colton, California) May 1, 2014

[21] San Bernardino County Sun (San Bernardino, California) September 18, 1951

[22] Daily Reporter (Dover, Ohio) January 29, 1968

[23] Luigi’s Jazz Warm Up: an Introduction to Jazz Style and Technique, by Luigi, Lorraine Person Kriegel and Francis

Roach, published by Princeton Book Company, 1997, page 17

[24] Brooklyn Daily Eagle (Brooklyn, New York) February 2, 1952

New York Age (New York, New York) March 22, 1952

[25] San Bernardino County Sun (San Bernardino, California) September 29, 1953

[26] Brooklyn Daily Eagle (Brooklyn, New York) December 13, 1952

[27] Elmira Star Gazette (Elmira, New York) June 18, 1953

[28] Brooklyn Daily Eagle (Brooklyn, New York) May 16, 1953

[29] Brooklyn Daily Eagle (Brooklyn, New York) June 16, 1953

[30] Screenland Plus TV-Land, December, 1953

[31] Brooklyn Daily Eagle (Brooklyn, New York) July 1, 1953

Winona Republican-Herald (Winona, Minnesota) September 2, 1953

[32] Tucson Daily Citizen (Tucson, Arizona) June 17, 1952

[33] Hollywood Reporter, February 21, 2013

[34] Morning Herald (Uniontown, Pennsylvania) September 9, 1953

[35] Times recorder (Zanesville, Ohio) September 23, 1953

[36] Milwaukee Journal Sentinel (Milwaukee, Wisconsin) November 23, 2007

The Independent (London, United Kingdom) September 29, 2003

[37] Also appeared in: On the Town, 1949; Annie Get Your Gun, 1950; An American in Paris, 1951,

Singin’ in the Rain, 1952 and many more which list  may be seen on Wikipedia

Cumberland News (Cumberland, Maryland) February 22, 1973

Sedalia Democrat (Sedalia, Missouri) February 7, 1973

New York Times (New York, New York) April 15, 2001

[38] Marilyn Monroe: Her Films, Her Life, by Michelle Vogel, published by McFarland & Company, Inc., 2014, page

109

[39] Las Vegas Strip History

[40] Valley Morning Star (Harlingen, Texas) May 26, 1955

[41] Kingsport News (Kingsport, Tennessee) February 9, 1955

Times Standard (Eureka, California) February 16, 1955

[43] Shamokin News-Dispatch (Shamokin, Pennsylvania) February 21, 1957

Niagara Falls Gazette (Niagara Falls, New York) February 21, 1957

News-Herald (Franklin, Pennsylvania) March 16, 1957

Pittsburgh Post Gazette (Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania) April 10, 1957

[44] Eureka Humboldt Standard (Eureka, California) July 3, 1965

[45] Tucson Daily Citizen (Tucson, Arizona) August 27, 1959

[46] San Bernardino County Sun (San Bernardino, California) December 2, 1966

Arizona Republic (Phoenix, Arizona) October 18, 1967

[47] San Bernardino County Sun (San Bernardino, California) June 30, 1966

Tonawanda News (Tonawanda, New York) August 29, 1968

[48] Tito Puente: When the Drums Are Dreaming, by Josephine Powell, Author House, 2007

[49] Philadelphia Inquirer (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania) January 13, 1958

[50] Anderson Daily Bulletin (Anderson, Indiana) February 24, 1958

Emporia Gazette (Emporia, Kansas) March 4, 1958

[51] Lubbock Evening Journal (Lubbock, Texas) June 11, 1958

[52] News-Herald (Franklin, Pennsylvania) June 28, 1958

Kansas City Star (Kansas City, Missouri) July 13, 1958

[53] Oneonta Star (Oneonta, New York) December 26, 1958

[54] News-Journal (Mansfield, Ohio) March 9, 1959

[55] Daily Record (Stroudsburg, Pennsylvania) September 15, 1959

[56] Kansas City Star (Kansas City, Missouri) February 21, 1960

[57] Knickerbocker News (Albany, New York) February 24, 1961

[58] Johnny’s Joint

[59] Classic TV Archive

[60] New York Times (New York, New York) October 21, 1962

Delaware County Daily Times (Chester, Pennsylvania) December 5, 1962

Cedar Rapids Gazette (Cedar Rapids, Iowa) December 7, 1962

[61] Lincoln Star (Lincoln, Nebraska) June 26, 1964

[62] Des Moines Register (Des Moines, Iowa) July 28, 1964

[63] Standard Speaker (Hazleton, Pennsylvania) June 26, 1964

[64] New York Times (New York, New York) June 26, 1964

[65] Ottawa Journal (Ottawa, Ontario, Canada) July 28, 1964

[66] San Bernardino County Sun (San Bernardino, California) June 30, 1966

[67] Knickerbocker News (Albany, New York) December 17, 1965

Hermes Pan: The Man Who Danced with Fred Astaire, by John Franceschina, Oxford University Press, 2012

[68] San Bernardino County Sun (San Bernardino, California) June 30, 1966

[69] Progress-Index (Petersburg, Virginia) May 29, 1967

[70] Morning Herald (Uniontown, Pennsylvania) August 5, 19676

[71] Pittsburgh Press (Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania) March 13, 1968

Tonawanda News (Tonawanda, New York) August 29, 1968

Monroe News Star (Monroe, Louisiana) August 30, 1968

Logansport Pharos Tribune (Logansport, Indiana) August 30, 1968

[72] Pottstown Mercury (Pottstown, Pennsylvania) August 30, 1968

[73] David ‘Tex’ Allen

[74] La Crosse Tribune (La Crosse, Wisconsin) May 4, 1969

[75] Des Moines Register (Des Moines, Iowa) July 29, 1970

[76] Hollywood Reporter, February 21, 2013

[77] The Good Life: The Autobiography of Tony Bennett, by Tony Bennett, publisher Pocket Books, 1998

[78] Lubbock Avalanche Journal (Lubbock, Texas) May 21, 1971

[79] Valley News (Van Nuys, California) February 2, 1977

[80] Independent (Long Beach, California) November 17, 1976

[81] Valley News (Van Nuys, California) February 2, 1977

[82] Hollywood Reporter, February 21, 2013

[83] Hollywood Reporter, February 21, 2013

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